Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Republican Plan Should be Vetoed I think that the Republican should be vetoed because to me, their proposed tax cuts in education, the environment, and other areas are not the way to go. There are probably other government functions that could use a decrease in spending. Raising medicare premiums (http://www.yahoo.com/headlines/951114/news/stories/budget_42.html) seems alright, but there could be a better way. In general, today's Congress is in so much deadlock over balancing the budget, they will end up watching it go to about $6 billion by the start of the new millenium!!! The debt's already too high now. President Johnson was able to halve the deficit and keep his budget under $100 million during his first year in office (http://pathfinder.com/time/special/moy/1964.html); but he achieved this through some manipulation of others - something of which Bill Clinton is not a master. Though the proposed increase of $9 a month may seem small to some,many older Americans in the long run will not be able to keep up with the payments and will trim down their disposable income (isn't this what Keynes would think?) Stimulating the economy at the expense of a certain group of people does not constitute favorable domestic policy for politicans of any party. Why is it that the U.S. has such a hard time trying to keep a stable economy when Germany has historically had pretty strong currency and is perhaps the best economic nation in all of Europe? (http://pathfinder.com/time/international/ 1995/950925/economies.html) They do have tougher regulations, but not a lot of capitalistic ways that we do here. The country's central bank managed to step in after unification with tough-minded economic management; and even though the eastern side of the country has spend a little more than necessary, Germany today remains financially stable (without huge increases in inflation). The temporary stop-gap spending bills that Clinton vetoed, causing the current partialgovernment shutdown, has made the U.S. look bad in the eyes of the world because of party gridlock. I doubt if countries such as Germany ever have this much trouble. Are there any solutions to solving the national debt that will completely satify everyone involved? Probably not. I proved that by stating my support for the President's veto of the Republican's spending bills. However, the oneitem that really bugs me is that if the Republicans want to lower the debt so much, why
Monday, September 16, 2019
1. Discuss how emotions are expressed through facial expressions. Emotion is one of the most controversial topics in psychology, a source of intense discussion and disagreement from the earliest philosophers and other thinkers to the present day. Most psychologists can probably agree on a description of emotion or what phenomena to include in a discussion of emotion. The list of these parts of emotion is called the components of emotion. These components are distinguished based on physiological or psychological factors and include emotion faces, emotion elicitors, and emotion neural processes. Neither emotion nor their expressions are concepts universally embraced by psychologists. The term expression implies the existence of something that is expressed. The behaviors referenced by expression are part of an organized emotional response, and thus, the term expression captures the behaviorsÃ¢â¬â¢ role less adequately than a reference to it as an aspect of the emotion reaction. In addition, facial expressions have primarily a communicative function and convey something about intentions or internal state, and I find the connotation of the word expression useful. Facial expressions and emotions are directly linked to each other. Many times, we subconsciously exhibit looks and expressions on our faces that are directly linked to how we are feeling at the time. Though people regularly recognize many distinct emotions, for the most part, research studies have been limited to six basic categories and they are happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. The reason for this is grounded in the assumption that only these six categories are differentially represented by our cognitive and social systems. (Knapp, Hall & Horgan, 2014, p.261) 2. Discuss pupil dilation and constriction. Early research determined that pupil dilation and interest in the stimulus are linked. Researchers currently utilize video-based eye-tracking tools that measure where people are looking, how long they are looking at something, and how their pupils respond to what they are looking at andÃ doing. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s pupils can dilate and constrict, and these eye movements signal their interest level, attitudes, memory, decision-making processes, as well as various disorders. When people are intrigued by or interested in something, they tend to look harder and focus deeper in on that particular thing. There has been so much more additional research on this topic, and many different results and ideas have been added to the causes and reasoning behind pupil dilation and constriction. Our pupils may dilate or constrict based on our attitudes. Pupils dilate for positive attitudes and constrict for negative ones. This can even include times when we receive compliments or praise for doing a goo d job. Our pupils dilate for excitement and things that feel good to us. Another study found that recognition and memory were also linked to the change in pupil size. If people saw or recognized something they have seen before, or something that brings back a fond memory, pupils tend to dilate. We link certain events to certain stimuli and research showed that this linkage created a change in eye size. Eyes may also dilate when we have reached a decision or how we are processing information. When we are in deep thought or going through the process of trying to make a difficult decision, our eyes may dilate or constrict depending on our emotions and feelings toward that particular decision or topic we are thinking over. Research shows that many different things can cause these variations in pupil size. It is hard to narrow it down to just a few things because there are so many and people react differently in every situation. Tightening muscles anywhere on the body, anticipation of a loud noise, drugs, eyelid closure, and mental effort all alter pupil size. While the visual cortex in the back of the brain assembles the images we see, a different, older part of our nervous system manages the continuous tuning of our pupil size, alongside other functions like heart rate and perspiration that operate mostly outside our conscious control. This autonomic nervous system dictates the movement of the iris, like the lens of a camera, to regulate the amount of light that enters the pupil. The iris is made of two types of muscle: in a brightly lit environment, a ring of sphincter muscles that encircle and constrict the pupil down to as little as a couple of millimeters across; in the dark, a set of dilator muscles laid out like bicycle spokes, which can expand the pupil up to 8 millimeters approximately the diameter of a chickpea. Cognitive and emotional events can also dictate pupil constriction and expansion, though such events occur on a smaller scale than the light reflex, causing changes generally less than half a millimeter. However, that is enough. By recording subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes with infrared cameras and controlling for other factors that might affect pupil size, like brightness, color, and distance, scientists can use pupil movements as a proxy for other processes, like mental strain. (Knapp, Hall & Horgan, 2014, p.318-319) 3. Describe when we gaze more and when we gaze less. Every day we use non-verbal signals to communicate a wide range of emotions, feelings and desires. One of the most important of these signals is the gaze. I am sure that everyone has had the experience of being on a bus or a train and suddenly feeling quite uncomfortable because you feel that another person is staring at you, even though they may just be staring at a dot on the wall and you happen to be in the same direction. In our everyday interactions, we look at many people, yet we look at them in a specific way in order to avoid discomfort and disagreements. We are never really taught how to look at people, apart from a parent telling us to stop staring when we are very young, but we still manage to understand the way this process works. It may be because we use glances, looks and gazes so much in our routine communications that it has become second nature to us. There are a number of factors that influence the amount of time we spend looking at someone when we are engaged in conversation; the person who is listening gazes more than the person who is talking, we look more at people that we like and less at people that we do not and we gaze more when we are interested in the topic, than when we are bored. Gaze refers to an individual looking at another person. There are four main functions of gazing. Regulatory is when responses may be demanded or suppressed by looking. Monitoring is looking at the partner to indicate the conclusions of thought units and to check the partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s attentiveness and reaction. Cognitive is looking away when having difficulty processing information or deciding what to say. Expressive is revealing the nature or degree of involvement and emotional arousal by looking. We gaze more when we are in deep conversations. In each of these functions, we gaze and look at the individual we are conversing with in various de grees of interest. Each of these has a different level of gazing. (Knapp, Hall & Horgan, 2014,Ã p.296-298) 4. How are the eyes used to determine deception? This question may require outside research. The eyes are the windows to the soul. The eyes are the most expressive area of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s entire body. A very important rule in the interpretation of non-verbal behavior, it is to look for breaks in eye contact. Breaks in eye contact, at the point of the answer, are considered deceptive. Breaks in eye contact indicating deception is generally accompanied by additional deceptive body behavior. A break in eye contact is when the interviewee is not, more or less, looking directly at the interviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s face and eyes, with the eyes open. Truthful people generally look at the interviewer when they are answering a question. Deceptive people will break eye contact at the instance of the answer. The process of detecting deception, by the use of breaks in eye contact, is used when the investigator is asking a series of questions, directed at the subject. In a question and answer session, the subject will generally maintain eye contact wi th the investigator, as the investigator is speaking. You should start with questions that are not relevant to the investigation at hand. Observe the personÃ¢â¬â¢s eye contact as you are speaking and they are answering. This will give you a norm for their behavior, what they normally do. Normally, a person will maintain eye contact during the question. You are looking for breaks in eye contact when the subject is answering the question. A truthful subject will maintain good eye contact while listening and will break eye contact to think or to gather thoughts and reestablish eye contact during the answer. For example, you ask a person where they were two nights ago at 10 pm. The subject will probably break eye contact while they are thinking and mentally gathering the information for the answer. This should not be considered a deceptive break in eye contact. The person is merely getting the information for the answer. In a truthful response, the person will regain eye contact and deliver the answer. The deceptive person will not maintain eye contact when they answer the question. They break eye contact, however briefl y, while answering the question. After the question is answered, the subject will resume eye contact. The deceptive break in eye contact occurs at the instance of the answer. These breaks may be subtle, looking away, blinking, rolling eyes, covering their eyes or diverting their attention to another task as they answer and coming back to eye contact after the answer. The break in eye contact is where the subjectÃ is mentally running away from you. In some cultures and in some people, they will not make eye contact, constantly looking down or away from you. This process will not work until the person makes eye contact during the conversation. The techniques to gain their eye contact are not addressed in this article. Do not challenge the subject to look you in the eye. This creates false eye contact and obscures your ability to read the true breaks in eye contact. Another variation of breaking eye contact to gather and deliver information is where the subject is telling a story. For instance, a subject was assaulted and robbed. While telling the story, the person may not look at the investigator as they are presenting the story. In this instance, the person is replaying the incident in their head and narrating the story as they recall. During the story, the person may periodically make direct eye contact when a specific point is made. After the story has been delivered, the subject should regain eye contact, waiting for the investigator to respond. (Givens, 2013) 5. Discuss the different types of gestures. Speech-independent gestures depend upon culturally accepted interpretation. A wave or two fingers for a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. Speech-independent gestures are nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition, usually consisting of a word or two or a phrase. These gestures are the least dependent on speech for their meaning and most commonly occur as a single gesture. Speech independent gestures consist of nodding, shaking of head, using the middle finger, shrugging, hugs, or thumbs up. Speech-related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech. This form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message. Speech-related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion. Speech-related gestures are sometimes called illustrators, or co-speech gestures, are directly tied to or accompany speech. The meanings and functions of these gestures are revealed as we examine how they relate to the attendant spoken language. Speech-related gestures resemble the movements elicited by long-train stimulation of the primate motor cortex. Speech-related hand gestures have their evolutionary origins in functional hand movements of ancestral non-primate and primate species andÃ may be constrained by the neural substrate for those movements. (Knapp, Hall, Horgan, 2014, p. 201-215) 6. Discuss how people use kinesics to persuade others. The use of kinesics and in everyday life is the most prominent use of persuasion we use without even knowing. They are used unknowing because you may not know what they mean. This can cause cultural tension if you do something that may seem harmless to you but may be a great insult to another culture. Kinesics has many forms, which can be used by many people in the American culture to pursue people daily for various reasons. This use of persuasion is used today in everyday life. Kinesics is articulation of the body, or movement resulting from muscular and skeletal shift. This includes all actions, physical or physiological, automatic reflexes, posture, facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements. Kinesics may substitute for language, accompany it, or modify it. Kinesics may be verbal or informative and directive in nature, or they may be emotive or empathic movements. Posture is one of the components of kinesics. Posture is broken down into three basic positions, bent knee s, lying down, and standing. Artists and mimes have always been aware of the range of communication possible through body stance. However, there are some cultural differences in posture positions. Eye contact helps beggars get more money. Frequent but not prolonged eye contact leads to more persuasion. The lack of eye contact causes the person being spoken to not to trust the speaker. Open body poses are more persuasive. An audience that is standing is more likely to be persuaded than an audience sitting. Another use of kinesics would be proxemics and distance, being closer to a person can be more persuasive. In addition, dressing appropriately is persuasive. Everyone knows if dress well for an interview then you are persuading the interviewer that you are the person for the job. People that are more attractive are more persuasive. (Fisher, 2011) 7. Describe how cultural diversity affects kinesics and eye behaviors. Kinesics is body motions such as shrugs, foot tapping, drumming fingers, clicking pens, winking, facial expressions, and gestures. Nonverbal behavior or kinesics using observational skills or reading body language to understand a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying feelings. Many people reveal more through their facial expressions part of kinesics than they may wish to convey. TheyÃ may sit alone and frown at what appears to be nothing at all. Others may exhibit a faint pleasant smile or offer a nearly vacant blank stare. Just by observations, you can begin to formulate opinions about others and react according to your impressions. Good kinesics give positive, self-confident, professional, nonverbal messages to people, being especially sensitive to gender or cultural differences. We as Americans may wish to be touched during difficult times or by close friends but generally stand 30 inches apart. Americans do shake hands. Young Americans do demonstrate affection publicly. Americans are taught to make eye contact. In terms of general kinesics, Americans use hand gestures to indicate when something is okay or give a thumbs up for a good job, and use head nodding to affirm a speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s message. African Americans most commonly exhibit behaviors typical of all Americans, but this group tends to touch more, especially around other African Americans. Further, as a group, they stand closer to each other and display more emotion through laughter and touching than is typical of Euro-Americans. Nonverbal communication skills serve various cultures well as you learn to observe and interpret the behavior of others. That which is non-neutral has some meaning. When nonverbal behavior contradicts verbal behavior, your attention must be focused there. Nonverbal interpretations also help you in establishing communication with those who cannot or will not talk. The nonverbal is often more revealing than the spoken word. The key elements of nonverbal language are kinesics, proxemics, haptics, oculesics, chronemics, olfactics, appearance and adornment, posture, locomotion, sound symbols, silence, and vocalics. You must be aware of what specific physical positions, such as encountering a patient with arms crossed who is staring at the floor, might mean. You must always check your perceptions rather than assuming the meaning of nonverbal behavior, especially when cultural differences may exist. Good observational skills are an important component of the nonverbal process. (OÃ¢â¬â¢neil, 2009) 8. Analyze your nonverbal communication using the material in the texts. Nonverbal communication is a broad term used to describe any method of transferring information without words. My nonverbal communication is intentional, and based on many things. Some of my nonverbal communication includes my body language, facial cues, attire, personal grooming, and hand gestures. Many of the facial expressions I use for example are relativelyÃ universal. Most of the time I am communicating fear, joy, or anger when I use nonverbal communication. Other times I use nonverbal cues like bowing, shaking hands, or nodding my head. I use body language as nonverbal communication very often. For example, you may see me turning towards a person when seated and speaking to them is a nonverbal cue by nodding my head. When I tilt my head slightly is a form of nonverbal communication to show curiosity or express that I am listening closely. I may tend to look away to show a lack of attention. Sometime I may position myself far away from whomever I am talking to can show disinterest, disgust, or fear of the person. When I position myself slightly closer that means I am showing interest. When I position myself extremely close that means I am trying to communicate either aggression or a very high level of interest. My attire is another form of nonverbal communication. My clothing can communicate how I am feeling. It also often acts as a marker for social class. Designer clothing, custom tailored suits or shoes denotes wealth. It can even act as a nonverbal cue for religion or politics as well. My gestures also act as a form of nonverbal communication. I use wide range of hand gestures on a daily basis, such as a wave goodbye, thumbs up to demonstrate everything is okay, a wink to show that something is being left unsaid, or my personal favorite, elbowing someone to let them know that something is wrong, or shrugging my shoulders when I am unsure. References Fisher, J. (2001). Knowing body language saves embarrassment and improves understanding and clarity. Retrieved from http://www.livingbetter.org/livingbetter/articles/bodylanguage.htm Givens, J. (2013). Deception Cue. Retrieved from http://center-for-nonverbal-studies.org/deceive.htm Knapp, M. L., Hall, J. A., & Horgan, T. G. (2014) Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. OÃ¢â¬â¢neil, D. (2009). Hidden Aspects of Communication. Retrieved from http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_6.htm Pfeuffer, K., Vidal, M., Turner, J., Bulling, A., & Gellersen, H. (2013). Pursuit Calibration: Making Gaze Calibration Less Tedious and More Flexible. Retrieved from http://www.d2.mpi-inf.mpg.de/content/pursuit-calibration-making-gaze-calibration-less-tedious-and-more-flexible
Sunday, September 15, 2019
I.Ethics Leadership and ethics are more than closely related. They are one in the same. A famous quote by James MacGregor Burns sums up the correlation well, Ã¢â¬Å"Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique.Ã¢â¬ (James Macgregor Burns) The quote touches on two very distinct differences. One aspect is leadership, and the other management. One who is a leader has the ability to inspire. He or she can inspire others to work harder, take on tasks thought to be impossible, and the leader could also inspire ideas. The ideas could come directly from a leader, or from those around him or her. A leader has complete clarity and vision. They also have a knack for overcoming obstacles and having others see and share their viewpoint. Another attribute that great leaders possess is the ability to show balance when handling various issues. They are able to balance ethic justice with ethic core. Ethic justice is defined by law and logic, as ethic core is defined by how it influences people on an emotional level. There have been various examples of ethical violations or moral ambiguity in business involving companies such as ENRON and TYCO. These companies were all about the perception of success. However, if someone were to investigate into the numbers, he would see there were serious problems. Hiding debt in dummy companies and offering excessive bonuses to executives are just a few examples of these violations. Where was the oversight? Well, the people who were in charge hand their hands out like everyone else. These individuals seemed oblivious to the consequences of their actions or those who would be hurt in the process due to their greed. Key decisions werenÃ¢â¬â¢t made at lower management level. Rather, they were being made at the executive level! IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it the role of effective managers to prevent occurrences like this from happening? What is managementÃ¢â¬â¢s position in these particular circumstances? Is there a specific procedure they should always follow? II.Processes of Management How do management and leadership differ from one another? It is best simplified by this quote from Peter Drucker, Ã¢â¬Å"Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.Ã¢â¬ The terms manager and leadership are commonly used to mean the same idea, although they serve different purposes. Mr. Drucker gives a glimpse of the differences within his quote. Management is defined as a process that is used within an organization to help accomplish goals. The overall process of management includes planning, organizing, leading, and utilizing individuals and resources available within the organization. Planning is all about strategy and positioning. Having a clear understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives will streamline the planning portion of the process. Being able to identify trends are critical in meeting the demands of a business. A well-developed plan will help diminish the chances of failure of an organization. The plan requires structure and a team to deliver the plan. It is important that the structure be in place, and everyone has a clear understanding of their role. The concepts of organizational structures have in practiced for nearly one hundred years. In 1919, a French economic theoretician Ã¢â¬Å"Henri FayolÃ¢â¬ published a book titled Administration Industrielle. It was one of the first publications that outlined the various aspects of a functioning business structure. He spoke about how to best to divide the function of business: creating a unity of command, hierarchy of authority, division of labor, and putting in place clear channels of communication. (Nickels & McHugh, 2010, p. 207) Another theory was developed by Max Weber. Max Weber wrote a book titled The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations. He shared many of the same theories as Henri Fayol. However, Max Weber was of the belief that less educated workers carried out tasks better if they were guided closely and given strict rules by middle management to be performed. (Nickels & McHugh, 2010, p. 208) Today many of those theories are still practiced. Businesses have to develop strategies allowing them to be nimble. If a business is slow to react to the market demands, they could be left behind. This is a costly proposition for companies looking to expand. Organizations seem to be moving toward a decentralized authority. This empowers the managers and employees to make decisions based upon their market needs quickly. A faster response time translates into improved customer relations and builds brand loyalty. This type of strategy is found in retail department store chains. On the other hand many fast food chains believe in the concept of centralized authority. All decisions on purchasing and promotion come from those in upper management. This allows companies such as McDonalds to keep their product consistent. (Nickels & McHugh, 2010, p. 210) It is unlikely that a drastic philosophical change within retail or fast food will take place anytime soon. There have been innovative changes within other market segments concerning team structuring and how to best respond to the demands of the consumer. For example, if a company wants to introduce a new product and bring it to market quickly they have the ability to pool their internal human resources. Simply put as bringing the best minds from all facets of the business and have them work on a specified project. This team is commonly known as a cross functional team. What is so unique about this team is that they are self-managed. They may also share different managers during the task. The engineer may work closely with the team on the design of the product. However, when it is time to distribute and brand the product the marketing manager may take over. They also work together on a long term basis fostering new opportunities. (Nickels & McHugh, 2010, p. 218) Working in teams can be great at moving an organization forward and carrying out task delivered by management. Teams can also seize opportunity by having the ability to quickly respond to a changing market such as technology. The biggest advantage of working in a team would have to be communication. Working as a team has far more advantages compared to its disadvantages. Some of the drawbacks would be the team having or developing a disconnection from the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s core values or a feeling that they are their own entity. This occurs when areas are departmentalized from other functions of the business. Sometimes, if a common goal is not reinforced, it can cause some employees to become disengaged. If you have ever been part of a team where one of the members is negative and disengaged it can become infectious. At a minimum it becomes a distraction and disruptive to the team and its progress. (Nickels & McHugh, 2010, p. 212) At what point does leadership step in to take charge? What role, if any, does leadership play in business? III.Leadership Leadership is universal as the principles that define effective leadership are equitable worldwide. This is because leadership is mainly founded on principles that revolve around human relations. It usually requires one to be selfless. Individuals in leadership should always prioritize the needs of all the people who are under his command before his personal needs or interests. There are several styles that have resulted in effective leadership. These styles depend on the demands and requirements of the individuals involved and the tasks facing the institution. However, these styles have also been forced to evolve with the changes brought along by the 21st century. This section tackles the evolution of leadership taking into account various styles and use of varied examples in a bid to highlight and make the issue most comprehensible. Leadership styles revolve around three key points. The first includes the manner in which a leader gives guidelines or directions to his subordinates. Secondly, it is also determined by the method through which the leader implements his plans. Lastly, leadership style is also largely influenced by whether or not the leader motivates people to produce the desired results. Leadership styles are usually categorized into three different and unique styles when referring to individual leaders. One of the leadership styles that have been around for ages is the authoritarian or autocratic type of leadership. In this case, the leader gives the employees orders on what they want to be executed and the execution manner. An authoritarian leader usually is strict on the regulations and policies governing the employees of the company. An example of an authoritarian leader is a traffic police officer giving directions to motorists (Glanz, 2002). According to Glanz, a true leader is best characterized if he or she serves as a role model to others by promoting corporation between them. Moreover, one should also empower other individuals by giving praise where necessary or including them in the process of decision making. Lastly, a leader should communicate effectively to his employees on both his values and those that govern the organization. Another form of leadership style is democratic or participative type of leadership. In this case, the individual in the leadership position includes other people in decision making. Despite this, the leader is the one to make the final decision on the matters at hand. There is also a leadership style where the leader delegates the role of decision making to the employees while giving minimal or no guidance. This style is referred to as free-rein or delegative type of leadership. This style works well where the employees are competent, and the leader has confidence in them. Having any characteristics of these three leadership styles doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you canÃ¢â¬â¢t enhance your role as a leader/manager with vision, value, and ethics. How does following these important guidelines improve your role as a leader? Leaders that impact businesses and employees on a daily basis know what they value. They also recognize the importance of utilizing their ethical behavior. The best leaders exhibit their values and ethics in their leadership style and actions. Defining your leadership ethics and values should be visible because you are living them in your actions every single day. A lack of trust can become a serious problem in many workplaces throughout the business world. If leaders never identified their values in these workplaces, the mistrust becomes understandable. If leaders have identified and shared their core values then living those values daily will create trust with everyone. Workplace ethics take the same route when the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership has a code of conduct and ethical expectation; they become an organization joke if the leaders fail to live up to their published code of ethics. Leaders that exhibit ethical behavior powerfully influence the actions of others including the employees that will eventually make that leader successful. As a leader, choose the values and the ethics that are most important to you, the values and ethics you believe in and that define your character. Then live them visibly every day in the workplace. Living your values is one of the most powerful tools available to you to help you lead and influence other s. Just as in the business text of class; leaders must communicate a vision, establish their values, promote their corporate ethics, and embrace change, and stress accountability and responsibility among employees to become an effective leader in management. How could you improve your role as a leader/manager to become more effective? Managers are often seen as administrators and not leaders, depending on how we define leadership. The meaning of leadership is defined as promoting new direction either in people or organizations. It has nothing to do with being in a position of authority over others. What do we define as management? This is having responsibility for people and other resources with the goal of getting work done as efficiently and effectively as possible. The goal of the manager is to execute the directions promoted by the leader. Managers do not differ from leaders based on their personalities or styles as leaders are not just more lively, charismatic or larger than life managers. Any manager can lead by promoting new directions. Managers can be as inspiring as leaders even when they are wearing their managerial hat; hence, aiming to get work done efficiently, they try to inspire employees to improve performance rather than move them to change direction as leaders do. Both leaders and managers can influence quietly or by example without being charismatic. Any person can step into management, but the real question is how that individual is going to lead his people or team. Managers become successful only by understanding what it takes to be an effective leader to promote change with accountability. An individual can manage, but the true success of a powerful leader is the reflection of performance among its subordinates. An imposing leader knows how to manage as well as how to promote change effectively and positively from leading by example. Becoming an effective leader will eventually give an individual the success to reach his/her employees through positive influence and by achieving the high expectations handed down by the company objective. It is up to the individual leader on how he wants to manage his people in order to receive the best end-results. Taking all of these aspects into consideration, does someone in a leadership position have an obligation to motivate his or her employees, or is it up to the employee to realize his or her motivation? IV.Employee Motivation Many corporations today explore various strategies on how to improve production and motivate their staff to give one hundred percent toward the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. The most successful companies and organizations always seem to have extraordinarily strong leadership. There are many ways in which strong leadership can motivate the employees in an organization. Strong leadership can be used to energize a team in the workplace. A formidable leader should create a positive correlation between the workers and their employer. Moreover, the leader should be able to pool energy from each worker so as to improve performance and productivity as a team. Strong leaders have enormous reserves of spiritual, emotional and physical energy. The leader should be able to create a time for reflection of performance and also interpersonal evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of every employee. This is because the investment in employees helps to improve performance and also improve motivation (Adair, 1998). Powerful leadership in the workplace can help to motivate the employees through effective communication. Communication helps to influence employees to improve their performance. In addition, delegation of duties within an organization is carried through communication, and it is essential for employees to communicate their concerns in the workplace to avoid inconvenience. An influential leader is a person who listens to the grievances of the subordinates and provides possible solutions to improve the level of performance. Moreover, a prominent leader should also be empowered to solve problems and to suggest solutions for the problems affecting the employees in the workplace. This means the information from every employee should be handled with the respect it deserves, including a concentrated effort placed on improving interpersonal relations with their employees. This reduces conflicts and creates a platform for employees to act as a team (Advameg, 2012). One valuable method to motivate employees in the workplace is to mentor them and encourage them to grow and work as a team. This improves their partnerships and helps the organization to benefit in the long run. The fundamentals of motivation should be based on influencing the employees and helping them to achieve success. In essence, the leader should limit the regulations and set rules. Any change of an objective or rule should be communicated effectively to avoid frustrations which may be created by the confusion. It should also be understood that employees work effectively in an environment where there are reduced rules and regulations. The rules should be developed in such a manner that they enhance integration and cohesion within the workplace (Emmerich, 2009). Awarding the employees who have performed well in an organization is one of the ways which motivates them and improves their capability. The top leadership should ensure that there is the creation of incentive programs in which the best performing employees are awarded according to their performance in the workplace. The main purpose for creation of incentive programs is to show the employees that the organization values and cares about them. In addition, through the rewarding of performance employees are encouraged to continue to seek improvement in their job. The production of employees is prone to increase after they have been motivated using incentive programs Messmer, 1995). Incentive programs motivate performance through maximization of results. Outstanding performance over a period of time should be rewarded through promotion or through the provision of incentives. The incentives should be based on hard work and should vary from one employee to the other. This helps to improve competition and also to help motivate the weaker employees to increase their performance within the organization. The leadership has the obligation to create a program in which the top performers are rewarded according to their performance in the work place. Alternatively, the salaries and remuneration of the top performing employees should be increased to encourage them to work towards achievement of personal goals and objectives (Emmerich, 2009). Performance based on consistent meeting of the objectives should also be rewarded. Some form of compensation helps to encourage employees to invest their personal best into an organization. Employers who reward their subordinates on performance based on consistency have increased rates in meeting of personal goals and objectives. Rewarding the employees shows them that they are important, and increases their level of motivation, consequently leading to excellent performance. This also shows employees that they are highly valued and are significant assets to management. Furthermore, rewarding employees helps to retain them and increase their morale in the workplace. Employees should also receive unexpected rewards to express appreciation for all of their diligence on the job. This unanticipated compensation explicitly illustrates their importance in the organization (Messmer, 1995). One of the proven ways of motivating employees is the reduction of turnover in the workplace. Reducing turnover creates cohesion and trust among the employees. Reduction of turnover also helps to maximize potential through reduction of the costs of retaining valuable employees. When the numbers of employees are at an optimum level, the rate of performance increases. This means that hardworking and promising employees within an organization should be retained while the unproductive employees should be dismissed. Arguably, it is evident that employees who leave their employment have the reason of being unmotivated and unsatisfied. Good leadership would solve these problems while helping to improve performance in the long run. However, the individual who displays a sense of pride complimented with self-motivation is the most valued employee and a key contributor to the success of any organization. (Advameg, 2012). Operating a successful business is by no means any easy task. For lack of a better analogy, itÃ¢â¬â¢s like a well-oiled machine. All the pieces have to be working together and each piece doing its fair share of the work. If one were to go down, then the others have to pick up the slack for the malfunctioning section. In business, each position has to be working together to achieve successful financial as well as intangibly. If not, then a company could very well be on the path to failure.
3. 4 It is essential that we respect the skills and expertise of other practitioners we work alongside. To work as a team we need to listen to others and take on board what they are saying. As someone new to the role we can learn a lot from our more experienced colleagues. To have a good relationship with other colleagues we need to show them that we respect their views, knowledge and opinions. In my short time at Holy Spirit I already feel that I have learnt a great amount from the other staff, particularly the support staff.This knowledge is vital and invaluable and will stay with me throughout my career. When working as team it is important that we communicate effectively with others. If we do not respect the skills and expertise of others it will cause resentment which can lead to problems with communication within the team. If we value the skills and expertise of others we may find that we are then invited to give advice and suggestions ourselves.By pooling our skills and knowle dge we are more likely to be successful in achieving the aims of the team. We can add to our own skills and expertise if we take time out to watch others practitioners. Changes occur regularly so there is always the opportunity to find out from others about new initiatives and ideas. In time others may come to us for advice and help because of the skills and expertise we have gained from others guidance.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
I. Lawyer and Society a. Observations i. Pursuant to rule 1.03, CPR, one defense counsel manifested to the honorable court that he does not wish to postpone the case again, the same having been previously postponed for four times already because of the prosecutionÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to present their witness. II. Lawyer and the Legal Profession b. Observations iii. Respect between defense counsels and fiscal iv. Address each other with respect v. Candid and Friendly vi. After hearing, counsels for accused approached prosecutor and bid their goodbyes, with laughs, as if they were really close friends vii. Pursuant to canon 8, fiscal and defense counsel (female), during their direct and cross examinations, respectively, never used offensive language whenever they have objections during the examination of the witnesses. III. Lawyer and Courts c. Observations viii. Treat Personnel with respect ix. No sign of any disgust or disrespect to Judge Danilo Galvez, despite approval of the latter of postponement of his case. x. Pursuant to 10.03, procedure, there was no showing that any of the lawyers violated any procedural rules of the court. xi. Pursuant to canon 11 and the rules thereof, all lawyers punctually appeared at their respective hearings; they were all properly attired when they came to court; and no offensive or menacing language were used, especially in one particular case where there was a direct and cross examinations xii. Pursuant to rule 12.07, during the cross examination of attorney of the witness of the fiscal, she never, even for once, harassed the witness. She addressed her questions to him very calmly and respectfully. xiii. IV. Lawyer and Client d. Observations xiv. In one case, the counsel for the defense manifested that if it be okay with the honorable judge and the court that the trial so proceed because the same has been postponed 4 times already; but prosecutor insisted for the postponement and reassured the court that on the next hearing they will be able to present their witness; judge granted postponement, Ã¢â¬Å"in the interest of justiceÃ¢â¬ xv. In another case, the prosecutor objected to the manifestation by the opposing counsel to dismiss the case; the reason for the proposed dismissal was because the prosecutor was not present at the last hearing; the reason for the objection was that the counsel looking to dismiss the case was also absent the previous hearing; judge said that both of you have been absent in one of the hearings, in the interest of justice, case will be postponed and will resume.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Changes in recent years to private health insurance - Essay Example people reported that they could not afford to purchase a health insurance or the costs of these insurances is too expensive.1 Aiming to encourage more people to acquire a health insurance, the Australian government took the initiative in offer a 30% rebate on the cost of private health insurance premiums for people between the age bracket of 0 Ã¢â¬â 64; a 35% rebate for people aged 65 to 69; and a 40% rebate will be given to people ages 70 and above.2 The said rebates is claimable either as a reduction on the insurance premium as soon as the payment is made to the private insurer or as a rebate through the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s tax return. In line with the new structure set by the Australian government, this study will focus on discussing several issues which will serve as strong evidences that the 1/3 rebate strategy has been ineffective and unsuccessful in increasing the sales of private health insurance as well as maintaining the quality of the overall all health services in the country. The main goal of Australian Federal Government for implementing a 30 Ã¢â¬â 40% rebate system in private health insurance is to improve the health of Australian citizens through payments and information.3 In line with the said goal, Medicare works with the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to improve its connection with the health sector. In September 2002, a total of 79.4% of the medical services that was performed in the hospitals was fully paid by the Australian government. This increased to 82.7% in December 2005.4 As a control measure, the local authorities implemented a Ã¢â¬Ëco-payment agreementÃ¢â¬â¢ to those who wishes to avail the medical services in the hospitals. According to Tracy Schrader, Ã¢â¬Å"any transfer of payment for health care from taxation to user-fees only benefits the wealthy.Ã¢â¬ 5 This is primarily because of the fact that wealthy people will have a better access to the health facilities at a much lower costs. On the other hand, people belonging to
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Media Analysis - Research Paper Example Some sources also helped to reform the nation in better way. Among those sources films, songs and political cartoons were playing important part. These all were worked for the purpose of motivation and for changing the views of the political leaders and parties. Describing about the importance of each of the above mentioned methods this can be said that each of them were equally important during the post civil war period in America. Political cartoons never failed to create patriotism and enthusiasm which were very much important for the civilian in the post war period. Thomas Nast was playing an important role in this particular field. He was the famous as the father of American political cartoonist. The young generation was also attracted by the political cartoons and these cartoons directed their views in proper and right way so that future generation has not to face the trouble of civil war. Public opinions were reflected regarding the situation and affect of war through the cartoon figures (Hogge, 2008). Some film makers also took initiative to focus on the certain pictures such as scale of death in war through some documentary films. Drew Gilpin Faust, Eric Foner etc were some renowned film makers who made such kind of documentary fil ms. American sheet music also provided significant perspective on the history of civil war during the post war period. There was 3, 042 pieces of sheet music at that point of time which influenced the people of nation. The collection of music included political music, patriotic music, sad songs etc which had strong impact especially on the young generation. At that point of time music was a form of propaganda. During the post civil war period illiteracy rate was high especially in the rural areas and communication system was poor. In that situation sheet music was an important way to convey the positive messages to the people of those rural areas. The most important