Saturday, May 23, 2020
Suleman Rana Ms. J. Bowen English 1101 November 10, 2015 Fast food and humans. Nowadays, we are so busy that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time for anything, not even for ourselves. Whether it is travelling or food, we want it to be done quickly. Food is the basic need of every human; we need to eat at least twice a day. In this busy life we often neglect the necessary measures we should take before selecting what to eat. We always try to save time and get more quantity, neglecting the quality. The food we eat has a great impact on our health. Fast food is viewed as a quick way to get good food. It might taste good but the health risks outweigh the satisfactions it brings. Fast food does have its own perks but itÃ¢â¬â¢s never the right thing to eat. If you make fast food your favorite food, there are high chances of you getting a lot of diseases, becoming obese and wasting money. Life is beautiful unless you have a lot of diseases to cope with. Fast food can cause dangerous diseases like diabetes and cancer. Diabetes is a curable disease but it is not that simple to cure. It effects our body organs, decreasing their functioning capabilities. The fast food we eat contains elements such as processed meat, grains and sugar, the latter often causing diabetes. The sodas we use as a replacement of water are totally unhealthy with a lot of sugar in it. Cancer is a very dangerous disease that can lead to death. Most of the junkShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Fast Food On The Human Body Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany people believe that fast food corporations like McDonald s have consistently been abusing the power that they have in the business world. Corporations tend to find the most miniscule loopholes in the system to manipulate to the convenience of the company, no matter the consequences. One way that they do this is through administering antibiotics. In 2015 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration made a statement stating that about 70 percent of medically important antibiotics sold in the U.S. hadRead MoreThe Effects Of Fast Food On Human H ealth Badly857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman beings cannot live without air, water, and food. These essences are vital for people to live. There are a great number of various types of food in the world such as Japanese, Italian, French, Mexican, American, and so on. Nowadays, people have more options to eat compared with decades ago. On the one hand, some people argue that this situation is efficient for people because they can select whatever they want to eat any time and anywhere. On the other hand, others contend that fast food affectRead MoreFast Food is Bad For Humans and Other Living Things Essay2218 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageswindows of many fast food restaurants in the new XXI century. Ã¢â¬Å"It is really comfortable and it saves timeÃ¢â¬ , my old neighbor whispers to me as a secret. Ã¢â¬Å"Today is my birthday! LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go to McDonalds and order cheese hamburgers and fries!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â My niece is screaming with delight in her face. Finally, really big hamburger appears in TV screen during commercial and looking juicy with fresh green salads forcing every one of us to feel hungry. However, fast food restaurants serve not only food lacking of vitaminsRead MoreFast Food Is A Global Phenomenon986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHealthy nutritious foods have been replaced by the new food mantra-JUNK food. In the context of world economy, Junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing strategies adapted by manufacturers of such as foods has triggered an evolution. The fast food has been growing constantly during the past few years. The popularity of fast food is rapidly among many people to the following three main reasons: good taste, convenient time, and price. ItRead MoreFast Food Vs Healthy Food Essay1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFast food has been an extremely evident food supplier in the past 10 years, so I have decided to investigate further into the fast food world. I am looking into the Ã¢â¬Å"battleÃ¢â¬ between fast food and healthy food, and why fast food is so cheap compared to healthy food. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something about fast food, I have just been so passionate about it, and have always wondered whatÃ¢â¬â¢s in fast food and why is it so inexpensive. I feel like fast food ingredients and prices should be expressed to the public, in whichRead MoreFast Food Is Defined As Food That Is Low In Nutritional1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFast food is defined as food that is low in nutritional value and prepared quickly and in large quantities. Fast food advertisements can be seen all over the world and readily available to most of the world s population. Fast food also falls under scrutiny, being the number one cause of childhood obesity a nd largely connected to many of the world s leading causes of health related illnesses. Even though fast food causes a large number of negative effects on the body, 50 million Americans are buyingRead MoreFast Food And Its Effects On America1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Fast Food in America We don t walk. We overeat because we ve made it easy to overeat. We have fast-food joints on every corner. By the way, the we is all of us. It s not the government. It s all of us doing this together.Ã¢â¬ (Mehmet Oz). Fast food has been affecting Americans lives since the 1919Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s where the first fast food restaurant originated. They were called AW in 1919 and White Castle in 1921. More than 3 million cases of obesity in America happen a year. Over timeRead MoreFood Nation : The Dark Side Of The All American Meal1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIMPLICATIONS OF PROCESSED FOODS TO HUMAN HEALTH Processed foods, refers to any deliberate alteration or modification of foodstuff before its availability for consumption. These alterations ranges from simple undertakings such as drying or freezing food for nutrients and freshness preservation to complex undertakings such as formulation of a frozen meal with the correct balance of ingredients and nutrients. Nowadays, processed foods have become a large part of the human food industry and this has beenRead MoreNegative Effects Of Fast Food1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA fast food meal every once in awhile is not harmful, but a diet consisting of fast food regularly causes oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health to decrease significantly. The CBSNews.com Staff states that Ã¢â¬Å"the all-American meal is a hamburger, fries, and a Coke or a shake.Ã¢â¬ These foods are some of the worst for the human body. People do not know just how high their intake of carbohydrates, sugar, trans and saturated fats, sodium, and calories is when consuming these f oods. Carbohydrates are in almost all kindsRead MoreTeen Obesity Essay1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescom. In the US the food proportions are a lot larger than the proportions in other parts of the world. Also, there are more variations of food and more types of food to indulge on. This is supported by greed. People feel the need to want anything and everything. Most teenagers do not know their limits. Once they have something they want more of it. If not then once they have something they want something else. Also, adolescents are lazy they eat fast food, and microwavable food instead of cooking
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Angel Williams Professor George ART4710 7 August 2015 Abelardo Morell: A Street Photographer The paper will explore Abelardo MorellÃ¢â¬â¢s life, photographic career, and discusses how the Camera falls into his career. Also, this paper will include an art critic review of his artworks. Abelardo Morell is a renowned Cuban-born photographer in the field of Contemporary photography, known for his invention working methods, including the use of a Camera Obscura that represented by Edwynn Houk Gallery in New York City. He took the Camera Obscura out of the past and bring it toward the future. This paper hopes to give a reader an understanding of Abelardo Morell and Camera Obscura. Abelardo Morell was born in Havana, Cuba on September 17, 1948 and raised in New York City. he was migrated with his parents to the United States and settling in New York in the year of 1962. However, he lived in Miami, Florida, where he taught himself how to speak the English because he had a hard time to familiarizing to the American culture during his early teen years (e.g. see fig.1). In the year of 1967, he graduated from public high school. During that time, he won a scholarship to Bowdin College in Brunswick, Maine. In the year of 1977, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. At age 14, Abelardo Morell realizes that he discovers his passion of photography through the photography books or magazines at his uncle s house. According to the National Geographic
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Objective To image a sample of rhodamine-doped polystyrene etched with various shapes, using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope and to analyse the sample topography by 2D and 3D reconstruction of the sample image. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Laser Scanning Microscopy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Introduction This CLSM design combined the laser scanning method with the 3D detection of biological objects labeled with fluorescent markers for the first timeÃ¢â¬ ¦..laser scanning microscopy, the object or specimen surface is scanned point by point by a focused laser beam. The image or other characteristic of the object is then generated by an electronic system. In a scanning laser microscope detecting fluorescent light from the specimen, the depth-discriminating property of confocal scanning has been used to carry out optical slicing of a thick specimen. The recorded digital images constitute a three-dimensional raster covering a volume of the specimen. The specimen has been visualized in stereo and rotation by making look-through projections of the digital data in different directions. 3. Materials and Devices A rhodamine-doped polystyrene sample etched with different shapes mounted onto a glass slide has already been prepared. A Zeiss LSM 510 META Axiovert 200M confocal microscope is used for imaging the sample. Fig. 1 A Zeiss LSM 510 META laser scanning confocal microscope . 4. CLSM-principles,working of the technique, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy is a novel optical imaging technique that merges the technology of a Laser Scanning Microscope and a Confocal Microscope resulting in high resolution images CLSM enables to form images from selected depths from within the sample (z stacks) and generate a 3D image of a specimen by stacking 2D images from successive depths . In this technique, a laser beam is passed through an aperture and focused by an objective lens onto a small area of the specimen. The reflected light (laser light and fluorescent light from illumination of the sample) is collected by the objective lens, and passed through a pinhole which removes Ã¢â¬Ëout of focusÃ¢â¬Ëlight and only allows light from the plane of focus to reach the detector which is a photo multiplier tube enabled with a filter that blocks the original laser light thus allowing the detection of the excited fluorescent wavelengths alone . The laser beam scans the specimen point by point thus resulting in the formation of the images pixel by pixel, which can be viewed on a screen . Since the scanning process in a CLSM is in a point wise fashion, in order to obtain data from, the entire sample, the specimen is moved relative to the laser beam or the laser beam is guided across the sample and CLSMs are as such also referred to as point-probing scanners . The advantages of this imaging technique over other techniques are numerous such as obtaining high-resolution optical images with depth selectivity, higher level of sensitivity, less invasive form of imaging, ability to acquire in-focus images from selected depths ( a process known as optical sectioning) and thereby reconstructed with a computer to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of samples. For the study of the rhodamine-doped polystyrene sample, a 40x C-Apochromat water-based lens was used and the CLSM imaging specifications were set to a frame size of 512?512 pixels, the depth was set to 8 bit, scan direction was set to a single direction. By varying the pinhole diameter, the degree of confocality can be varied and here the pinhole was set to 1 Airy unit. Thus only the first order of the diffraction pattern reaches the detector while the higher orders are blocked, thus improves the resolution but also results in a slight decrease in brightness. Also the laser wavelength required to successfully image the rhodamine doped polystyrene sample is xxxxx . 5. Principle of Imaging in 3 Dimensions Plan how to experimentally characterise the surface topography (height of the geometric structures) 5. Preparation of sample and Imaging and Characterisation of Surface Topography with astd errors Imaging in 3 DimensionsThis is carried out by altering the level at which the sample is observed ie by altering the plane of focus. Thus by changing this, a series of images at different positions can be produced that spans through the through the sample thickness. Thus resulting in a series of X-Y images at different Z axis positions. Therefore by optical sectioning a series of images are obtained which are then digitally reconstructed by computer softwares to give 3D representations of the sample. In this experiment, the surface topography f the rhodamine doped polystyrene sample is carried out by performing a z- stack . The boundaries of the scan are set by using the focus control and marking the top and bottom of the sample. Thus between these boundaries a series of images are taken at different z- axis and a projection of the images are performed. The parameters taken for the projection are- Initial Angle of 0Ã °, number of projections is 64 and a Difference Angle of 6 degr ees. Data 2 D and 3 D images of a rhodamine doped polystyrene sample etched with various shapes were taken. The images show that the surface of the polystyrene sample consists of circular, triangular and square micropillars with varying heights. With the help of 3D reconstruction of the ample topography, the heights of the micropillars were calculated. A series of three z stacks were performed for each kind of micropillar (circular, square and triangular respectively) and their heights were determined. Analysis The errors associated with the measurement of the height of each micropillar has been calculated by using standard deviation method and the following bar graphs have been plotted with the error bars denoting the standard deviation. The images obtained from the of rhodamine-doped polystyrene The consequences of quenching and photobleaching are suffered in practically all forms of fluorescence microscopy, The two phenomena are distinct in that quenching is often reversible whereas photobleaching is not . Most quenching processes act to reduce the excited state lifetime and the quantum yield of the affected fluorophore. photobleaching (also termed fading) occurs when a fluorophore permanently loses the ability to fluoresce due to photon-induced chemical damage and covalent modification An important class of photobleaching events is represented by events that are photodynamic, meaning they involve the interaction of the fluorophore with a combination of light and oxygen (158-161).Reactions between fluorophores and molecular oxygen permanently destroy fluorescence and yield a free radical singlet oxygen species that can chemically modify other molecules in living cell Comparison of LSM with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in view of application to biology Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has found tremendous application in the field of biology ranging from cell biology and genetics to microbiology and developmental biology. It allows imaging thin optical sections in living and fixed specimens ranging in thickness up to 100 micrometers. advantages, including the ability to control depth of field, 3D reconstrucyion of images, non-invasive nature, enables study of both living and fixed specimens with enhanced clarity.. Additional advantages of scanning confocal microscopy include the ability to adjust magnification electronically by varying the area scanned by the laser without having to change objectives (zoom factor). CLSM has the advantage of not requiring a probe to be suspended nanometers from the surface, as in an AFM for example, where the image is obtained by scanning with a fine tip over a surface. tomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a powerful form of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) that performs its imaging function by measuring a local property of the surface being inspected, such as its height, optical absorption, or magnetic properties. AFM employs a probe or tip thatÃ¢â¬â¢s positioned very close to surface to get these measurements The ability to monitor this deflection allows the AFM to create an image of the sample non-destructively even if the tip is continuously in contact with the sample. To prevent the cantilever tip from damaging the surface of the sample, it is maintained at a constant angular deflection so that the force applied by the tip on the surface is also kept constant. Contact mode imaging employs a soft cantilevered beam that has a sharp tip at its end, which is brought in contact with the surface of the sample. The force between the tip and the sample causes the cantilever to deflect in accordance with HookeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law, exhibiting a spring constant th The advantages of AFM include the following: 1) it generates true, 3-dimensional surface images; 2) it does not require special sample treatments that can result in the sampleÃ¢â¬â¢s destruction or alteration; and 3) it does not require a vacuum environment in order to operate (it can operate in both air and liquid). On the other hand, itsdisadvantages include the following: it is slow in scanning an image A stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed, which features a large scan area and which allows operation under liquid. This system was combined with a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Information about cell structures, obtained by CLSM, can be complemented with images of the cell surface obtained with the AFM. References Claxton N S, Fellers T J, Davidson M W. Laser scanning confocal microscopy. http://www.olympusconfocal.com/theory/LSCMIntro.pdf S. Wilhelm, B. Grobler, M. Gluch, and Hartmut Heinz, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy: Optical Image Formation and Electronic Signal Processing, Jena, Germany: Carl Zeiss Advanced Imaging Microscopy, 2003.  C. J. R. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Oxford, United Kingdom: BIOS Scientific Publishers, 1997. T. Wilson (ed.), Confocal Microscopy, New York: Academic Press, 1990. J. W. Lichtmann, Confocal Microscopy, Scientific American, 40-45, August, 1994. A. R. Hibbs, Confocal Microscopy for Biologists, New York: Kluwer Academic, 2004. W. B. Amos and J. G. White, How the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope entered Biological Research, Biology of the Cell, 95: 335-342, 2003. J. B. Pawley (ed.), Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, New York: Plenum Press, 1995. Adhesion Enhancement through Micropatterning at Polydimethylsiloxane?Acrylic Adhesive Interface M. Lamblet,Ã¢â¬ ¡ E. Verneuil,Ã¢â¬ Ã § T. Vilmin,Ã¢â¬ ¡ A. Buguin,Ã¢â¬ P. Silberzan,Ã¢â¬ and L. Leger*Ã¢â¬ ¡ Ã¢â¬ ¦..Langmuir, 2007, 23 (13), pp 6966Ã¢â¬â6974 DOI: 10.1021/la063104hÃ¢â¬ ¦.Publication Date (Web): May 19, 2007  T. Kodama, et al., Development of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope/Atomic Force Microscope System for Force Curve Measurement, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 43, issue 7B, pp. 4580-4583, 2004.  C. A. J. Putman, et al., Ã¢â¬ËAtomic force microscopy combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy: A new look at cellsÃ¢â¬â¢, Bioimaging, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 63Ã¢â¬â70, June 1993. 13]  E. Meyer, Ã¢â¬ËAtomic force microscopyÃ¢â¬â¢, Progress in Surface Science vol. 41, issue 1, pp. 3-49, 1992. How to cite Laser Scanning Microscopy, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Kosta had noted the recent success of Swatch fashion watches and was aware that watches and other goods could be imported from the Far East at very low cost. On a visit to Hong Kong, Tom studied a number of potential products for import including toys and stuffed animals before following KostaÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and returned to the U. S. to develop a watch import business. Enlisting the aid of two friends, Lynne Stafford for her sense of design and Alan Moore who had a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in accounting, he invested his savings of $200,000 to found Fossil as a Texas corporation in 1984. FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s initial purchase of watches from a Hong Kong manufacturer included some retro and jumbo designs that MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s thought were Ã¢â¬Å"hot,Ã¢â¬ and significant orders followed. A design staff was developed that included watch buyers from retail chains. Inspiration came from many sources. , however: the strongest was Ã¢â¬Å"retroÃ¢â¬ themes from the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and 50Ã¢â¬â¢s. Designers paged through magazines from this era, including Life, Look, and Time, and visited flea markets searching for old watches. Between 1987 and 1989 sales grew from $2 million to $20 million, assisted by liberal credit from the Hong Kong manufacturers of Fossil watches. One sector included conservatively styled time pieces including brands such as Citizen and Seiko. The second sector included products designed to reflect emerging fashion trends and included Swatch, Guess? , Anne Klein and Anne Klein II, and Fossil. This segment was fueled by fashion-conscious consumers who considered watches as fashion accessories and often owned multiple watches. Branded fashion watch sales were estimated to represent approximately $400 million in retail sales in 1990. Major Competitors FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s major competitors were Swatch and Guess?. Although market share data were difficult to obtain, it was generally believed that Fossil and Guess? had nearly equal market shares and that Swatch had slipped to third in recent months. Numerous other considerably smaller competitors existed including Anne Klein, Anne Klein II, and Gucci. Swatch Although quartz watch technology had been developed in Switzerland, by the late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the Japanese companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Seiko, Citizen, and Casio and the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ firm Texas Instruments exploited production improvements and economies of scale to drive prices down. Strategic use of the manufacturing experience curve led to an oversupply of quartz watch movements and a severe price war. Many competitors were driven out of business with Casio, Hong Kong producers, and a few other firms surviving in mass market watches, and Seiko and Citizen in the moderately priced segment. The Swiss watch industry was under severe attack at the low and mid price points, and both unemployment and losses on bank loans were increasing. In 1978, the Swiss government agreed to provide up to one-third of the costs or a maximum of Sfr. 5 million for a venture of the leading watch manufacturers to develop a Swiss electronic watch program. Additional financing was supplied by banks, who wrote off existing loans and provided hundreds of millions of francs of new capital, and a group of investors who paid $100 million (Sfr 151 at the time) for a 51 percent share. The consulting firm of Hayek Engineering was hired to lead the effort to revive the lower-priced segment. This venture produced a number of new patents and developed both new watch and watch manufacturing technologies, along with the ability to design and manufacture watches efficiently at low cost. The resulting firm, Swiss Corporation for Microelectronics and Watchmaking (SMH) included the existing brands Omega, Longines, Tissot, and Rado in the moderate and fine watch segments. N. Hayek and E. Thomke led efforts in the low priced segments that resulted in the Swatch manufactured by SMHÃ¢â¬â¢s ETA division. Development of the Swatch began in 1980, resulting in a product launch in 1983. The manufacturing process was highly automated using robots and computers in the manufacturing and assembly processes. The watch had been designed with only 51 parts, instead of the usual 90 to 150 parts in other watches, had an ex-factory price of Sfr15. Parts were injected directly into the plastic case which was sealed by ultrasonic welding. This process was highly capital intensive, leading to direct labor costs of less than ten percent of total costs. The manufacturing process permitted a wide variety of dials, cases, and straps: however, variations in the shape and size of the watch case were quite difficult. One plant could produce up to 35,000 watches a day. Swatch was test marketed in the United States in December 1982 at 100 Sanger Harris department stores in Dallas, Salt Lake City, and San Diego without any advertising or public relations. Although consumer reactions were mixed, Swatch was officially launched in Switzerland in March 1983, followed by a gradual worldwide release. A second U. S. test market in December 1983 through the Zale jewelry chain and MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s was not successful. Swatch made extensive adjustments throughout their marketing program, and by 1985, U. S. sales accelerated. In 1986, a worldwide single price of $30 for most models was set and sales accumulated to over 50 million units worldwide by 1988. The 100 millionth Swatch was sold in 1993, when the price of a basic Swatch was $40. In 1992, SMH had combined sales for all brands of $2. 1 billion, producing $286 million in profits and a market equity value exceeding $3. 5 billion. Banks had encouraged Nicholas Hayek to assume a 20 percent equity ownership in the mid-80Ã¢â¬â¢s, a successful arrangement for both. Fifteen thousand employees worked in plants in Switzerland and Thailand producing semi-conductors, watches, movements, batteries, and straps. Guess? In 1983, Philip Ã¢â¬Å"MickeyÃ¢â¬ Callanen acquired the worldwide license to manufacture and market watches with the Guess? name. Investing $40,000 of his personal funds, he opened business in his garage, sourced watches from Hong Kong, and shipped for the 1983 Christmas season. Growth continued through the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s at over 20 percent annually. In 1991, Callanen Company was acquired by Timex, expanding distribution to Japan, Australia, France, England, Germany and Canada and providing Callanen an additional source of watch technologies such as Indiglo dial illumination. In 1993 Callanen marketed both Guess? watches for men and women and Monet watches for women. Guess? represented 85 percent of the $80 million shipments (3 million watches) in 1992. The Guess? product line included 250 to 300 styles including classic, fashion, sporty, multi-function, chronograph, novelty, and metal bracelet watches. About 20 percent of the product line was revised seasonally four times a year. Guess? watches had a suggested retail price between $42 and $115, using department stores as the major retail outlet. Fifteen percent of Guess? sales were in international markets. Additional products included watch bands and private label watches for Disney, Hard Rock Cafe, Limited Express, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and others. Virtually all Guess? watches were designed and manufactured at Guess? Ã¢â¬â¢s partly owned manufacturing facility in Hong Kong. The 270 employees included a design staff of 19. CallanenÃ¢â¬â¢s business offices, warehouse, and watch repair facility were located in Norwalk, Connecticut, and they had a showroom in New York City. Manufacturing and Sourcing About two million, or eighty-five percent of fine watches sold worldwide, were manufactured in Switzerland in 1988, making Switzerland the largest value producer with sales of $4. 9 billion (96 million watches) in 1990. Most other watches were manufactured in the Far East, with the major exception of Swatch, which was manufactured in a highly automated factory in Switzerland. The development of the Swatch and its robotic factory was credited with saving the Swiss watch industry. Japan was the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest producer in terms of units, with 325 million units, representing 44 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s production in 1990. Hong Kong, relying on assembly by hand, produced 175 million watches in 1990, and was expected to produce 340 million, or one-third of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s watches in 1993 (Table 6). Due to Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on low-priced watches, this represented only nine percent of the total value of watches produced. Fossil chose to assemble watches in Hong Kong, using components from Japan, China, Taiwan, Italy, and Korea. FOSSIL IN 1993 Business Strategy FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s initial public offering prospectus defined their business strategy as: Ã¢â¬Å"Brand Development. The Company has established the FOSSIL brand name and image to reflect a theme of fun, fashion, and humor, and believes that the FOSSIL brand name has achieved growing acceptance among fashion-conscious consumers in its target markets. Product Value. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products provide value by offering quality components and features at moderate prices. For example, the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s FOSSIL watches, which offer features such as raised indexes, enamel, textured, shell or semi-precious stone dials, gold electroplating, and fine leather straps, are sold at an average retail price of $63. Likewise, the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s RELIC watches, which incorporate a number of features offered in FOSSIL watches, are sold at an average retail price of $42. Fashion Orientation. The Company ifferentiates its products from those of its competitors principally through innovations in fashion details, including variations in the treatment of watch dials, crystals, cases, and straps for the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s watches and trimming, lining, and straps for its handbags. Expansion of International Business. The Company is seeking to achieve further growth in its international business through the establishment of a joint venture to operate a European distribution center, the establishment of a branch office in Canada, and the recruitment of new distributors in selected international markets. Introduction of New Product Categories. The Company may leverage its design and marketing expertise to expand the scope of its product offerings through the introduction of new categories of fashion accessories that would complement its existing products. Active Management of Retail Sales. The Company manages the retail sales process by carefully monitoring its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ sales and inventories by product category and style and by assisting in the conception, development, and implementation of their marketing program. As a result, the Company believes it enjoys close relationships with its principal customers, often allowing it to influence the mix, quality, and timing of their purchasing decisions. Close Relationships with Manufacturing Sources. The Company has established and maintains close relationships with a number of watch manufacturers located in Hong Kong. The Company believes that these relationships allow it to quickly and efficiently introduce innovative product designs and alter production in response to the retail performance of its products. Coordinated Product Promotion. The Company coordinates product design, packaging, and advertising functions in order to communicate in a cohesive manner to its target markets the themes and images it associates with its products. Personnel Development. The Company actively seeks to recruit and train its design, advertising, sales, and marketing personnel to assist it in achieving further growth in its existing businesses and in expanding the scope of its product offerings. Cost Advantages. Because the Company does not pay royalties on products sold under the FOSSIL and RELIC brand names and because of cost savings associated with the location of its headquarters and warehousing and distribution center in Dallas, Texas, the Company believes that it enjoys certain cost advantages which enhance its ability to achieve attractive profit margins. Centralized Distribution. Substantially all of the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are distributed from its warehousing and distribution center located in Dallas. The Company believes that its distribution capabilities enable it to reduce inventory risk and increase its flexibility in meeting the delivery requirement of its customers. (Fossil, 1993, 23-24) Manufacturing Fossil East, a 35 employee subsidiary of Fossil (owning 20 percent interest), acted as FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusive agent, buying all of FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s watches from approximately 20 factories located in Hong Kong. In 1992, about 21 percent of these watches were purchased from Pulse Time, a Hong Kong corporation in which Fossil held a minority interest. Three other factories each accounted for more than 10 percent of FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s watches. The company felt that developing long-term relations with suppliers was essential to its success. While the loss of any single manufacturer could disrupt shipments of certain watch styles, it would not impact their overall marketing program. Leather goods were manufactured in 12 factories located in Brazil, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and Uruguay. Fossil believed Ã¢â¬Å"that its policy of outsourcing products allows it to achieve increased production flexibility while avoiding significant capital expenditures, build-ups of work-in-process inventory, and the costs of managing a substantial production work forceÃ¢â¬ (Fossil, 1993, 27). Products FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s flagship products were the Fossil watches introduced as a brand in 1986. Handbags were introduced in 1991 as the first entry into the leather goods market. Watch Products Watches represented 98. 1, 96. 4, and 92. 5 percent of sales in the years 1990, 1991, and 1992 respectively. Following the Fossil brand, Fossil introduced the Relic brand, Fossil watch straps, and private label products. FOSSIL Watches: Fossil states its Ã¢â¬Å"watches are targeted at middle and upper income consumers between the ages of 16 and 40 and are sold at retail prices generally ranging from $45 to $110, with an average price of $63Ã¢â¬ (Fossil, 1993, 25). RELIC Watches: The Relic brand shared many of the features found in Fossil watches but in a format suitable for lower priced fashion watches. Relic watches Ã¢â¬Å"are targeted at lower and middle income consumers and are sold at retail prices generally ranging from $40 to $50, with an average price of $42. Ã¢â¬ Fossil Watch Straps: Watch straps were targeted at customers who bought Fossil watches; however, they could be used with a wide variety of watches. They were priced from $13 to $15. Private Label Products: Fossil provided private label watches for retailers and other customers. Leather Goods Following the introduction of Fossil handbags in 1991, small leather goods such as coin purses, key chains, personal organizers, wallets, and belts for women were introduced in 1992, accounting for about five percent of sales in 1992. The handbags emphasized classic styles and creative designs, including a tan and black binocular bag, a green and tan drawstring sac, and a natural color military ammunition pouch retailing from $48 to $130, with an average price of $87. Fossil felt that since womenÃ¢â¬â¢s leather goods tended to be located near womenÃ¢â¬â¢s watches in department and specialty stores, purchase of one Fossil product might lead to another. They also felt that they were price competitive. Design and Development The design staff sought to Ã¢â¬Å"differentiate its products from those of its competition principally by incorporating innovations in fashion details into its product designs. Ã¢â¬ These included variations in the treatment of dials, crystals, cases, and straps for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s watches and trimming, lining, and straps for handbags (Fossil 1993, 26). FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s watch lines included Airmaster, Casual, Chronograph, Dress, Limited Edition, Pyramid, Crystal, Skeleton, and Vintage watches. About 500 different styles were available at any given time, with new designs offered five times a year. Over 1,000 models were available in 1992. Design prototypes of watches were created in Hong Kong in as little as a week, and lead-time from committing orders to shipment ranged from two to three months. Fossil believed that its close relationships with manufacturers gave it a competitive advantage in quickly introducing innovative product designs. Promotion Fossil made use of an in-house advertising department for design and execution of packaging, advertising, and sales promotions. Company executives felt that extensive use of computer-aided design reduced time and encouraged greater creativity in developing these programs. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stated advertising themes Ã¢â¬Å"aim at evoking nostalgia for the simpler values and more optimistic outlook of the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s through the use of images of cars, trains, airliners, and consumer products that reflect the classic American tastes of the period. These images are carefully coordinated in order to convey the flair for fun, fashion, and humor which the Company associates with its productsÃ¢â¬ (Fossil, 1993, 28). A sundial watch sold over 250,000 pieces at a retail price of $16. Fossil developed cooperative advertising programs with major retail customers and developed in-store visual support through its packaging, signs, and fixtures. Consumers were offered promotional items, including unique tin boxes as watch packaging, T-shirts, caps, and pens. In ten locations, Fossil opened a Ã¢â¬Å"shop-in-shopÃ¢â¬ format including a wide variety of Fossil products and promotional materials. With greater emphasis on product design, retailer relations, and promotion, Fossil conducted advertising limited to spot television in local markets since 1989, national spots since 1991, outdoor advertising in four markets, and occasional ads in Elle, Mademoiselle, Vogue, and Seventeen. Distribution and Sales Force The majority of FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s products were shipped to its warehouse and distribution center in Dallas. A significant number were bar coded prior to shipment for entry into a computerized inventory control system, which enabled Fossil to track each item from receipt to its ultimate sale. Products were distributed to approximately 12,000 retail locations in the United States including department stores and specialty retail stores. In 1991 and 1992, department stores accounted for about 67 percent of net sales. (Table 8 provides data on watch distribution by price and retail channel. ) FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s ten largest customers accounted for 40 percent of sales. The largest customers were DillardÃ¢â¬â¢s and the May Company, each accounting for from ten to thirteen percent of sales. Other principal customers included Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Dayton Hudson, Federated Department Stores, JCPenney, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Nordstrom, and Service Merchandise. Although the industry typically used independent sales representatives, Fossil made use of 25 in-house sales and customer service employees and 12 independent sales representatives. In-house personnel received a salary while independent sales reps worked on a commission basis and did not represent competing product lines. International sales in 1990, 1991, and 1992 were 5. 6, 7. 2, and 8. 1 percent of net sales, respectively. Sixteen independent distributors operated in Europe, South and Central America, Africa, and Australia. These distributors resold watches to department stores and specialty retail stores. Fossil received payment in U. S. dollars based on a uniform price schedule. Financial Strategy Fossil had started out as a Ã¢â¬Å"bootstrapÃ¢â¬ financed firm. Personal income and savings from Tom KartsotisÃ¢â¬â¢ ticket-brokering business had provided the initial capital for the operation, and the company had further financed operations by the creative use of trade credit and bank loans. With sales growing rapidly, FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion needs exceeded what it could raise internally. To sustain sales growth, Fossil needed a substantial increase in working capital. FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to continue to fund itself with debt capital, given their exposure to volatility in the fashion product market, was questionable. An initial public stock offering (IPO) which would provide access to capital needed to expand FossilÃ¢â¬â¢s working capital base and fund additional sales growth, was managed by Montgomery Securities of San Francisco. While not uncommon, IPOÃ¢â¬â¢s of less than $20 MM involved transaction costs that many viewed as being too high to justify the offering. A critical decision that needed to be made was what proportion of the ownership should be issued.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Paper What makes you, you? Is who we are the result of our genes (nature) or is it the result of our upbringing (nurture)? Nature: the result of our genes Nurture: everything else other than genes, the culture you were brought up in, the country and family you were brought up In, the school you went to There Is an interaction between nature and nurture II. The Nature Component A. Genes: Our biological blueprint Our body is made up of millions of cells, in every cell, except egg and sperm, we have 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs We have thousands of genes, which are considered to be he basic unit of heredity Genes are segments of DNA that carry the Instruction that give an organism its traits or characteristics Different size of animals and people depends on a single gene (chromosome 1 5) Sometimes multiple genes (gene complexes) are responsible for something such as obesity Genes are made up of nucleotides There are four nucleotides: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine They always come in pairs, A with T and G with C The sequence determine what a gene will do and what It will not do Changing Just one letter In a sequence changes what the gene does We will write a custom essay sample on Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Common analogy: chromosomes are like books, genes are the words in a book, and nucleotides are the letters in a book Human genome: we have roughly 30 thousand genes in our DNA They discovered based on the mapping of the human genome that every human on earth Is 99. 99% genetically similar to every other human being on earth Repartition of thee. 01% difference: 5% deference among races, 95% differences within a race Nature genetics, 2004: race does NOT exist biologically; there Is no white, black, Arab, Asian race, and it is just a social concept We share: 95-98% of our DNA with chimps, 0% of our DNA with mice, 50% of our DNA with bananas, 44% of our DNA with fruit flies B. Evolutionary Psychology Bal . What is Evolutionary Psychology (PEP)? Newest perspective in psychology, heavily influenced by Darnings principals of the Theory of Evolution According to Darwin, the mall goal Is to survive and to transmit (natural selection); many organisms die out due to survival of the fittest Survival of the Fittest: when there is a match between characteristics of organism and demands of the environment Evolutionary psychologists took the theories of Darwin to explain unman behavior; they study behaviors that are universal and common to all human beings; they study adaptive behaviors (adaptation is essential for survival) Any behaviors, traits, or emotions that our ancestors had are what we see in humans today We are in the post-antibiotic era, bacteria are smart 82. Application of PEP to Sexuality Surveys: men think more about sex, masturbate more, want sex more than women, are more likely to interpret friendliness as a come-on, and are more likely to make sacrifices for sex Clark and Hatfield (1978): recruited average-looking men and women o go around campus saying: Hey, Ive noticed you around campus, want to go to bed tonight? Different attitudes about sex: majority of women were offended, majority of men would say yes or why wait till tonight? According to PEP: both men and women have the same goal, but have different strategies to achieve the goal due to physiological differences It takes women 9 months to produce a baby, so relational sex enhances survival; it doesnt take men long to plant their seeds, so recreational sex is best strategy 83. Retinue of PEP Professors Critique: this is offensive because most men, like most women, want to be n healthy relationships There are at least 18 societies today that encourage women to have multiple partners because they believe that a child can have multiple fathers (women in these societies are less likely to have a miscarriage, women with multiple partners were more likely to have children that made it to age of 15 years) How evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in sexuality: Peps theorize that women have inherited their ancestors tendencies to be more sexually cautious because of the challenges associated with incubating and nurturing offspring, whereas men inherited an inclination to be more casual about sex because their act of fathering requires a smaller investment Three main criticisms of the evolutionary explanation of human sexuality: (1) it starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation, (2) unethical and immoral men could use such explanations to rationalize their behavior toward women (3) this explanation may overlook the effects of cultural expectations and colonization C. Behavior Genetics CLC . Introduction Behavior genetics: a field of study where the main goal and purpose is to determine he extent to which differences between individuals are due to genetics; Bags are interested in INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Why we differ and how genes affected this: see below Q. -ret studies Minimization (Identical) Twins: one sperm fertilizes one egg and then the egg splits, always the same gender, and 100% genetically similar Dogmatic (Fraternal) Twins: two different eggs fertilized by two different sperms, can be same or opposite sex, 50% identical twins should be more similar on this trait than fraternal twins 1 identical twin has Alchemists, other twin has 60% chance fraternal twin has Alchemists, other twin has 30% chance 1 identical twin divorces, other has 5. 5% chance 1 fraternal twin divorces, other has 1. % chance studies find that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins in extroversion (outgoingness) and neurotics (emotional instability) MAKE LIST OF GENETIC COMPONEN TS AND OTHER COMPONENTS Genetic components: extroversion, neurotics, agreeableness, personality traits, temperament (emotional excitability) Other components: attitudes, values, manners, faith, politics Criticism: these twins have similar environments, they come into this oral at the same time, are exposed to the same things, same home, same school, maybe this is why they are similar Solution: started studying twins who were separated and reared apart; identical twins who are reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins who are reared apart Boucher et Al. : studied over 100 twins, results indicate that for certain traits there is a genetic component Conclusion: identical twins reared together are more similar to each other than identical twins reared apart; identical twins are more similar to each other (reared together or apart) than fraternal twins (reared together or apart) CO. Adoption Studies Rationale: we have one adopted child with two sets of parents biological and ad optive parents Clear evidence to indicate that adopted children, when it comes to personality, are more similar to their biological parents, even if they have never met them, than they are to their adoptive parents (personality has a strong biological component) CREATE TWO COLUMNS: BIOLOGICAL PARENTS VS ADOPTIVE PARENTS faith, politics CO. Family Studies Rationale: family members are more genetically similar to each other than strangers, if a trait has a genetic component to it then family members should be more similar n that trait than strangers are Within a family we have different degrees of genetics, therefore if a trait has a genetic component to it, then family members who are ore similar to each other genetically should be more like each other then family members who are less genetically similar to each other Regular siblings: 50% Parents and children: 50% Grandparents and grandchildren: 25% 1st cousins: 12. 5% CO. Temperament Studies Definition: a temperament is your typical emotional reactivity (the way you respond to life) and the typical intensity of that response. Do you respond with fear and anxiety? Or are you excited and bold? Or are you shy? Temperament is a component of personality, has a genetic component Babies come to this world equipped with a temper; four different types of temperaments: Easy babies (40%): positive emotions, Slow-to-warm babies (1 5%): shy, guarded in their expression, takes the awhile to adapt to new environments and strangers Difficult babies (10%): strong emotional reactions, fussy, cry a lot, patterns are unpredictable and irregular, not easy to soothe Physiological studies show that difficult babies have a more erred up/aroused nervous system Combination babies (35%): sometimes easy, sometimes difficult, moieties shy, sometimes bold Twin studies indicate that identical twins are more similar in their temperament than fraternal twins Temperament seems to endure, and stay stable throughout time Through nurture we can modify and reshape temperament; parenting does make a difference CO. Heritability Definition: the percentage of variation within a given population that is due to heredity (the degree to which differences between/amongst individuals are due to genetics) h2o = heritability coefficient (heritability can be quantified by a heritability coefficient) h2o = Variances / (Variances + Overcompensation) 2 varies between O and 1 If h2o = 0. 0 no genetic influence If h2o = 1. 0 all variance is due to genetic influence If h2o = 0. 4 40% genes (60% environment) if h2o = 0. 6 60% genes (40% environment) Points to know and remember about heritability: Sometimes for the same trait, different studies come up with a different h2o (due to environment) When environment is similar, h2o will be higher When environment is different, h2o will be lower Just because individual differences are heritable, it does NOT necessarily mean that differences between races, gender, generations are heritable CO. Nature and Nurture Interaction Just because you have inherited a gene does not mean that this gene is going to affect you, this gene may remain dormant for the rest of your life, genes MAY need the environment to turn them on, this is not always the case Self-regulating: the same gene will act differently in a different environment Both male and female rats have a gene that makes them very nurturing and loving towards baby rats, however this does not turn on till they can hear, see, and smell the baby rat We dont Just transmit genes to our offspring, we transmit the pattern of activation as well The environment is one of the most important factors influencing gene Genome Pigment: tells a genome to activate/turn on/turn off Methyl groups: chemicals that, when present, inactivate/silence a gene Acetate groups: tell the gene to turn on, express itself Epigenetic (simplified definition): study the factors that influence/affect gene expression with affecting DNA Epigenetic studies the mol ecular mechanisms by which environments trigger genetic expression; study of environmental factors that affect how our genes are expressed (life experiences beginning in the womb lay own epigenetic marks, organic methyl molecules, that can block the expression of any gene in the associated DNA segment) D. Behavior Genetics Definition: a field of research where scientists are trying to identify the genes to heart disease and everyone has heart disease except for a few people, study one person who has it and one person who doesnt; find the gene that varies and youll know which gene is responsible for high cholesterol and heart disease. Relevance to psychology: we study both mental illness and mental health and part of helping people become healthy is knowing which genes we need to fix; intervention, revelation, therapy. Promises and dangers: dangers if employers can tell that you have heart disease or something they may fire you, if parents can tell their baby is going to have a problem they may abort it; promises they can go into the chromosome and snip the gene that is problematic. Midterm Question Use one of the principles of evolutionary psychology to answer the following question: Each one of us has 4 grandparents. Using the principles of evolutionary psychology which one of those grandparents is going to spend the most time, money, energy and resources on you. Ill. The Nature Component A. Prenatal Development The baby in the womb is very well protected, however this protection is not 100%, the baby remains vulnerable in the womb because lots of germs and infections can pass through the placenta; this baby can be harmed due to mothers environment (living near a nuclear plant) or mothers diet (the food she is eating). Even though twins, identical and fraternal, share the same womb, they may not be sharing the same environment. Example: one twin may be getting the better nutrition, better protection from viruses, better blood and oxygen supply. Fraternal twins have different lactates, identical twins can have the same or different placentas; identical twins with different placentas are less similar to each other than identical twins who share the same placenta. Marked for life (? ): what happens in the womb can influence and effect our life later on; cancer, blood pressure and heart diseases all could have been rooted in nutrition of the mother when she was pregnant. Two twins in the womb touch each other and are aware of each others presence, this brings up the question of when does awareness begin? B. Experience and Brain Development Bal . Experience Facilitates Brain Development Nurture is essential and vital for proper brain development They need stimulation, proper nurture, to hear sounds and feel touch for proper brain development 82. Experience Changes the Brain For the longest time researchers believed that when the brain reaches maturity it will stay the same until it gets hit by diseases and begins to deteriorate However, we learned that even after the brain reaches maturity it continues to change through experience; learning new skills could cause your brain to change for the better: if you start taking new drugs and are always stressed that will change the brain for the ores They took a bunch of rats and treated them the same until they were 70, then they divided them into two groups: poor rats and rich rats; the poor rats were stuck in a cage and Just given food and water, the rich rats were given food, water, big cages, freedom to interact with each other, new toys to explore all the time; at 90 they killed the rats and studied the brains, realizing the rich rats brains developed more. C. How Much Credit or Blame do Parents Deserve? Abusive, neglected children who become neglectful, etc. In personality mea sures, shared environmental influences from the womb onward typically account for less Han 10% of childrens differences; two children are (apart from their shared genes) as different as two random children. Parents should be given less credit for kids who turn out great and blamed less for kids who dont; children are not easily sculpted by parental nurture. D. Peer Influence Definition: individuals who are the same age or have the same level of maturity as us It is clear to researchers that peers are important to ones life (peers go all the way back to infancy) If one does not have peers, they create imaginary ones because peers are needed Children who are bullied or rejected by their peers end up being pressed and may kill themselves in the future As we age we interact with peers more and more; growing interaction with friends leads to growing influence by peers such as music taste, the way you dress Peers and risk-taking behavior: children and young teenagers are more likely to have risk-taking behavior when their peers also take risks or if they think their peers are taking risks; is it selection of friends? Parents also influence us Lifestyle choices: your parents choose what neighborhood you live in, what school they put you in The quality of parent-child interaction influences and effects the laity of peer-child interaction; for example, boys who bully others are more likely to have parents who are aggressive and dominate them, boys who get bullied are more likely to have parents who are overbearing and protective of them Advice: you are affected by the advice parents give you about relationships, life, or anything else Bottom line: parents and peers both influence you by distinct and complementary MAKE A CHART: PARENTS INFLUENCE VS PEER INFLUENCE E. Culture Definition: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm: an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; norms prescribe proper behavior When we dont understand whats accepted or expected, we may experience culture shock; two great culture shocks are the differing pace of life and peoples differing senses of punctuality Cultures vary and compete for resources, and thus evolve over time; many changes have occurred since 1960 There have been positive changes (middle-class people travel more, eat out more, women have economic independence) and negative changes (increase in divorce, depression, and work hours); we cannot explain these rapid culture changes by changes in the unman gene pool; cultures vary, change, and shape our lives Individualism: giving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications; behavior reflects ones personality and attitudes, confrontation acceptable Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of ones group (often ones extended family or work group) and defining ones identity accordingly; behavior reflects social norms and roles, harmony valued V. The Nature and Nurture of Gender (Not on first midterm, but definitely on final exam) Men Women Tend to feel better about their appearance Four times more likely to commit suicide or suffer alcohol dependence More often diagnosed with color-blindness, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (as children), and antisocial personality disorder (as adults) In surveys, men admit to more (direct, physical) aggression than do women Male-to-female arrest ratio for murder is 9 to 1 in the United States and 8 to 1 in Canada Express more support for war (hunting, fighting, and warring are primarily mens activities) Perceived as being more dominant, forceful, and independent (place more importance on power and achievement) Tend to be more direct, even autocratic Talk assertively, interrupt, initiate touches, stare more, smile less, apologize less Boys typically play in large groups with an activity focus and little intimate discussion Male answer syndrome: men are more likely than women to hazard answers rather than admit they dont know Part of the parietal cortex (key area for space perception) is thicker in men Tend to f eel better about their behavior and ethics The average woman enters puberty two years earlier, lives five years longer, carries 70 percent more fat, has 40 percent less muscle, and is 5 inches shorter Can become sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm Smell fainter odors Express emotions more freely Offered help more often Doubly vulnerable to depression and anxiety, risk of developing eating disorders is 10 times greater Women are perceived as being more deferential, nurture, and affiliated Tend to be more democratic, more welcoming of subordinates input in decision making Girls usually play in smaller groups, often with one friend (play is less competitive than boys and more imitative of social relationships) Females are more open and responsive to feedback than are males Females are more interdependent than males Women are more likely to tend and befriend (are more open with each other, desire intimacy) Parts of the frontal lobe (involved in verbal fluency) are reportedly thicker in women Gender similarities and differences 2 of the 46 chromosomes are sex chromosomes; these sex chromosomes determine whether a baby is genetically male or female The major sex chromosomes are X and Y; mother always contributes an X, father can contribute an X or Y (i f he contributes a Y the baby is male, X the baby is female) If the baby only ends up with one chromosome and it is an X the baby can survive but will have trouble later in life; if the baby only ends up with a Y it cannot survive and is terminated immediately in the mob There is a gene on chromosome Y called UDF that kicks in at 7 months in the womb, forming testes and testosterone (for female babies the absence of testosterone leads to the development of female body parts) Hormones influence and Female rats or monkeys: if injected with testosterone when they are pregnant the female babies behave like the males of the species, going after women and being more aggressive Human cases: the girls are more tomboyish, they dont like Jewelry and dolls, they like guns and like to play war; the bodies of men who are genetically male produce testosterone but their cells dont respond to testosterone, so their dies dont develop male genitalia and they become more like girls Normal hormone leve ls = average women Higher levels of progesterone = more feminine Higher levels of testosterone = more masculine The role of culture and society Parents describe their baby girl as being delicate, little, sweet; they describe baby boys as being firm, strong, and well-coordinated Medically, there are not differences in strength, alertness, and coordination between baby boys and girls Study: a baby boy was dressed in pink (parents held the baby for a long time, walked and rocked the baby, gave the baby teddy bears and bunnies to play with, cooed the baby) then he baby was dressed in blue (parents gave the baby a truck and hammer to play with, held the baby for a bit, then put him on the floor and encouraged him to start to crawl). Gender identity: a strong sense of being male or female Gender roles: expectations from society linked and associated with being a male or female; these gender roles vary from one culture to the next Gender typed: adopting a traditional masculine role or a traditional feminine roll There are many theories in psychology attempting to explain gender Social learning theory: we learn about a gender through observation, we learn through modeling, we have a role model and e imitate that role model, we learn through observation, modeling, rewarding and punishing Gender schema theory: they do accept what social learning theory is, saying yes there is observation, modeling, rewarding and punishing, but they take it several steps further; children are not learning passively, rather they are actively taking this information, drawing conclusions about this information, and they organize it into boys, girls, men, and women; those schemes become a rule in their life.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Recycling and Dear Fellow Friends.standing Essays Recycling and Dear Fellow Friends.standing Essay Recycling and Dear Fellow Friends.standing Essay Recycling Good morning to our beloved teachers, Puan Rusni and my dear fellow friends. Standing here today,I would like to deliver a speech entitled,Recycling. According to the Asian Development Bank,rapid development,rising personal consumption and unprecedented levels of waste in Asia where cities will generate on estimated 1. 8 million tonnes of rubbish per day by 2025. In Malaysia alone,we produce over 15,000 tonnes pf rubbish daily and it is a matter of time before we run out of space to dispose them. In dealing with this phenomenon,we shall discuss some of the suggestions that all of us can adapt through the process of recycling to conserve the environment. One of the ways to recycle is to sell old newspapers to the junkman who will eventually send them to the recycling centres. By selling the old newspapers,we can earn some extra money at the price of RM0. 03 per kilogramme of old newspapers. Buying recycled paper is also another option. On the average,about 17 market sized trees are felled to produce a tonne of paper or one tree is felled to produce 20 reams of A4 size paper. Today,we recognise the limits of resource demand and this is the reason why recycled paper is critical part of our aspiration for a healthy global environment. We should also use both sides of a sheet of paper because it cultivates the habit of not being wasterful while saving our earth from further deterioration. In addition,glass bottles should be recycled. The energy saved by recycling a glass container can light a 100-watt bulb for up to four hours. Avoiding the use of plastic products is another recommended way to protect our Mother Nature because plastic is non-biodegradable,it may survive as long as 700 years. Apart from that,it is indispensably necessary for us to save water and electricity as much as possible. We have to save electricity because we are running fast out of fossil fuels. The fossil fuels saved by turning off the water taps while brushing our teeth. By doing this we can save the energy used to filter purify and transport the water to the end users. On the other hand,electricity can be saved by switching off the light,television,radio and fan before leaving any rooms. This is because the primary environmental impact of electricity consumption is the production of greenhouse gases which contribute to global warming. Hence,saving electricity is the key preserve our Mother Nature, Another advice that everyone ought to take head of is not to throw away leftover rice but instead,make fried rice,tamarind rice,pepper rice and yoghurt rice. This is because many poor nations of the Third World countries are suffering from famine and malnutrition due to accute shortage of food such as Mozumbigue and Sudun and Myannar. Lastly but not least,we can also use water for washing clothes to wash our parentscars and other non-drinking purpose such as watering plants,washing toilets and mapping floors. As a conclusion,our planet is in a bad shape but most people choose to be indifferent to the effects initiated by the goverment to safeguard to dire condition of the environment. Majority of Malaysians choose to ignore the gathering storm clouds and hope the problem will magically take care of itslef. In Klang Valley,for instance,it produces more than 5000 tonnes of rubbish everyday which can cover the whole of Petronas Twin Towers,one of the tallest buildings in the world,in ten days and this is the reason why we must reduce,reuse and recycle. Whether the planet lives or dies,it depends on us and so,everyone plays a significant role by starting to recycle even from homes because a small change in behaviour has a measurable impact on our Earth. Thank you for lending me your ears. I hope all of you are benefited from my speech today.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
No topic - Essay Example This is not healthy at all, since the missionaries should only do their part of spreading the gospel and leave the rest for the recipients to accomplish. He indicated that provision of external financial help is not self-sustaining and it could only lead to more problems than solutions. Jean indicates that missionaries premeditate their strategies for attaining their goals. The reason is that missionary works are motivated by a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s mentality where people assume that missionary is going to bring the desired salvation to the masses in terms of money and resources. As a result, missionaries have to premeditate how to achieve this goal already in the mindsets of the masses for them to achieve their goals. This leads to unsustainable organizations that are not capable of cultivating indigenous resources. These organizations are often vulnerable and when the missionaries withdraw or reduce their external support, these organizations are doomed to fail. Thus, he argues for the cultivation of a sustainable and indigenous church that thrived on local resources but not from missionary